Types of Attacks Flash Cards

Define Social Engineering

A general term for attackers trying to trick people into revealing sensitive information or performing certain actions, such as downloading and executing files that appear to be benign but are actually malicious. -nist.gov

Define Phishing

Tricking individuals into disclosing sensitive personal information to gain access to sensitive data (such as bank account numbers) by claiming to be a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication (e.g., internet web sites). -nist.gov

Define Spear Phishing

A colloquial term that can be used to describe any highly targeted phishing attack. -nist.gov

Define Whaling

A specific kind of phishing that targets high-ranking members of organizations. -nist.gov

Define Vishing

An electronic fraud tactic in which individuals are tricked into revealing critical, financial, or personal information to unauthorized entities (-techtarget.com) conducted by voice email, VoIP (Voice over IP), or landline or Cellular telephone. (can be called voice or VoIP Phishing)

Define Tailgating

Tailgating, sometimes referred to as piggybacking, is a physical security breach in which an unauthorized person follows an authorized individual to enter a secured premise. Tailgating provides a simple social engineering-based way around many security mechanisms one would think of as secure. -techtarget.com

Define Impersonation

Practice of pretending to be another person to obtain information, access to a person, company, or computer system. -social-engineer.org

Define Dumpster Diving

The act of going through trash to find sensitive information that may help the attacker carry out their attack. As the name suggests information is often gained by entering or otherwise gaining access to trash in a dumpster or other type of trash receptacle.

Define Shoulder Surfing

In this attack the attacker attempts to see the user screen by looking over the user's shoulder. This can occur close or even across the room. The attacker is attempting to discover sensitive information, including usernames and passwords

Define Hoax

A hoax is a fake warning or story – sometimes preposterous

Define Watering Hole Attack

A security exploit where the attacker infects websites that are frequently visited by members of the group being attacked, with a goal of infecting a computer used by one of the targeted group when they visit the infected website. -nist.gov

Define Principles (reasons for effectiveness)

Define Authority

Person(s) or established bodies with rights and responsibilities to exert control in an administrative sphere. -nist.gov

Define Intimidation

Intentional behavior that "would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" to fear injury or harm. -Wikipedia

Define Consensus

The attempt to persuade the victim by using internet articles or other sources to prove the act they are attempting is legitimate.

Define Scarcity

The possibility that something of value may not be available in the future.

Define Familiarity

When an attacker takes the time to become your friend in hopes of tricking you into giving them useful information or access.

Define Trust

When an attacker is able to get a firm belief in the reliability, truth, ability, or strength from an unsuspecting victim.

Define Urgency

When an attacker urges the victim to act quickly.

Define Application/Service Attacks

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur adipiscing elit dolor

Define DoS

The prevention of authorized access to resources or the delaying of time-critical operations. (Time-critical may be milliseconds or it may be hours, depending upon the service provided). -nist.gov

Define DDoS

A denial of service technique that uses numerous hosts to perform the attack. -nist.gov

Define Man-in-the-Middle

A form of active wiretapping attack in which the attacker intercepts and selectively modifies communicated data to masquerade as one or more of the entities involved in a communication association. -nist.gov

Define Buffer Overflow

A method of overloading a predefined amount of memory storage in a buffer, which can potentially overwrite and corrupt memory beyond the buffer’s boundaries. -nist.gov

Define Injection

An injection attack, an attacker supplies untrusted input to a program. This input gets processed by an interpreter as part of a command or query. In turn, this alters the execution of that program. -acunetix.com

Define Cross-Site Scripting

A vulnerability that allows attackers to inject malicious code into an otherwise benign website. These scripts acquire the permissions of scripts generated by the target website and can therefore compromise the confidentiality and integrity of data transfers between the website and client. Websites are vulnerable if they display user supplied data from requests or forms without sanitizing the data so that it is not executable. -nist.gov

Define Cross-Site Request Forgery

An attack in which a Subscriber who is currently authenticated to an RP and connected through a secure session, browses to an Attacker’s website which causes the Subscriber to unknowingly invoke unwanted actions at the RP. For example, if a bank website is vulnerable to a CSRF attack, it may be possible for a Subscriber to unintentionally authorize a large money transfer, merely by viewing a malicious link in a webmail message while a connection to the bank is open in another browser window. -nist.gov

Define Privilege Escalation

The exploitation of a bug or flaw that allows for a higher privilege level than what would normally be permitted. -nist.gov

Define ARP Poisoning

ARP Poisoning (also known as ARP Spoofing) is a type of cyber attack carried out over a Local Area Network (LAN) that involves sending malicious ARP packets to a default gateway on a LAN in order to change the pairings in its IP to MAC address table. -radware.com

Define Amplification

An Amplification Attack is any attack where an attacker is able to use an amplification factor to multiply its power. -radware.com

Define DNS Poisoning

Domain Name Server (DNS) poisoning or spoofing is a type of cyber-attack that exploits system vulnerabilities in the domain name server to divert traffic away from legitimate servers and directs it towards fake ones. -kaspersky.com

Define Domain Hijacking

Domain hijacking is the act of changing the registration of a domain name without the permission of the original owner, or by abuse of privileges on domain hosting and domain registrar systems. -upguard.com

Define Man-in-the-Browser

A security attack where the perpetrator installs a Trojan horse on a victim's computer that's capable of modifying that user's Web transactions as they occur in real time. -techtarget.com

Define Zero Day

An attack that exploits a previously unknown hardware, firmware, or software vulnerability. -nist.gov

Define Replay (Application/Service Attacks)

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur adipiscing elit dolor

Define Pass the Hash

A hacking technique that allows an attacker to authenticate to a remote server or service by using the underlying NTLM or LanMan hash of a user's password, instead of requiring the associated plaintext password as is normally the case. It replaces the need for stealing the plaintext password with merely stealing the hash and using that to authenticate with. -wikipedia.org

Define Hijacking

A type of network security attack in which the attacker takes control of a communication - just as an airplane hijacker takes control of a flight - between two entities and masquerades as one of them. -techtarget.com

Define Clickjacking

An attack that tricks a user into clicking a webpage element which is invisible or disguised as another element. This can cause users to unwittingly download malware, visit malicious web pages, provide credentials or sensitive information, transfer money, or purchase products online. -imperva.com

Define Session Hijacking

An attack in which the Attacker is able to insert himself or herself between a Claimant and a Verifier subsequent to a successful authentication exchange between the latter two parties. The Attacker is able to pose as a Subscriber to the Verifier or vice versa to control session data exchange. Sessions between the Claimant and the Relying Party can also be similarly compromised. -nist.gov

Define URL Hijacking

The process by which a URL is wrongly removed from the search engine index and replaced by another URL. The new, false URL still links to the actual target page, not directly, but via a redirect. -ionos.com

Define Typo Squatting

A form of cybersquatting (sitting on sites under someone else's brand or copyright) that targets Internet users who incorrectly type a website address into their web browser (e.g., “Gooogle.com” instead of “Google.com”). -mcafee.com

Define Driver Manipulation

Device drivers allow an operating system such as Windows to talk to hardware devices such as printers. Sophisticated attackers may dive deep into the device drivers and manipulate them so that they undermine security on your computer. -oreilly.com

Define Shimming

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur adipiscing elit dolor

Define Refactoring

The process of altering an application's source code without changing its external behavior. The purpose of code refactoring is to improve some of the nonfunctional properties of the code, such as readability, complexity, maintainability and extensibility. -techopedia.com

Define MAC Spoofing

A technique for changing a factory-assigned Media Access Control (MAC) address of a network interface on a networked device. -wikipedia.com

Define IP Spoofing

A hacker uses tools to modify the source address in the packet header to make the receiving computer system think the packet is from a trusted source, such as another computer on a legitimate network, and accept it. -kaspersky.com

Define Wireless Attacks

A wireless attack is a malicious action against wireless system information or wireless networks; examples can be denial of service attacks, penetration, and sabotage. -igi-global.com

Define Replay (wireless attacks)

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur adipiscing elit dolor

Define IV

A binary vector used as the input to initialize the algorithm for the encryption of a plaintext block sequence to increase security by introducing additional cryptographic variance and to synchronize cryptographic equipment. The initialization vector need not be secret. Some of the Triple Data Encryption Algorithm Modes of Operation require 3 initialization vectors (IV) -nist.gov

Define Evil Twin

A fraudulent Wi-Fi access point that appears to be legitimate but is set up to eavesdrop on wireless communications. The evil twin is the wireless LAN equivalent of the phishing scam. -wikipedia.org

Define Rogue AP

A Rogue AP is an access point that has been installed on a secure network without explicit authorization from a system administrator. -cisco.com

Define Jamming

An attack that attempts to interfere with the reception of broadcast communications. -nist.gov

Define WPS

A communications protocol designed to help facilitate the setup of wireless networks in homes and small offices. -techopedia.com

Define Bluejacking

A hacking method that allows an individual to send anonymous messages to Bluetooth-enabled devices within a certain radius. -techopedia.com

Define Bluesnarfing

The unauthorized access of information from a wireless device through a Bluetooth connection, often between phones, desktops, laptops, and PDAs (personal digital assistant). -wikipedia.org

Define RFID

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. -wikipedia.org

Define NFC

Stands for "Near Field Communication." NFC is a short-range wireless technology that enables simple and secure communication between electronic devices. -techterms.org

Define Disassociation

A type of denial-of-service attack that targets communication between a user and a Wi-Fi wireless access point. -wikipedia.org

Define Cryptographic Attacks

A method for circumventing the security of a cryptographic system by finding a weakness in a code, cipher, cryptographic protocol or key management scheme. -Wikipedia.org

Define Birthday

A type of cryptographic attack that exploits the mathematics behind the birthday problem in probability theory. This attack can be used to abuse communication between two or more parties. -wikipedia.org

Define Plain Text and Cipher Text

Plain text: Unencrypted information that may be input to an encryption operation. -nist.gov Cipher text: The result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher. -Wikipedia

Define Rainbow Tables

A listing of all possible plaintext permutations of encrypted passwords specific to a given hash algorithm. Rainbow tables are often used by password cracking software for network security attacks. -techtarget.com

Define Dictionary

A dynamic-length data structure that stores a collection of elements or values, where a unique label identifies each element. The label can be any data type. -nist.gov

Define Brute Force

An attack that involves trying all possible combinations to find a match. -nist.gov

Define Brute Force (Online and Offline)

An attempt to crack a password or username or find a hidden web page, or find the key used to encrypt a message, using a trial and error approach and hoping, eventually, to guess correctly. -kaspersky.com

Define Collision Attack

A cryptographic hash tries to find two inputs producing the same hash value, i.e. a hash collision. This is in contrast to a preimage attack where a specific target hash value is specified. -wikipedia.org

Define Downgrade

An authorized reduction in the level of protection to be provided to specified information, e.g., from a Moderate impact-level down to a Low impact-level. -nist.gov

Define Replay (Cryptographic Attacks)

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur adipiscing elit dolor

Define Weak Implementations

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur adipiscing elit dolor